USAGE OF PERLITE IN AGRICULTURE
USAGE OF PERLITE IN AGRICULTURE
* Perlite with its total porosity of more than 90% and its ventilation porosity around 60% provides aeration of the soil and regulates its drainage.
* Perlite increases infiltration and decreases evaporation. Provides economy in irrigation.
* It does not carry weed seeds and diseases due to its inorganic nature.
* It does not cause any problems in terms of salinity and alkalinity due to almost no soluble ions.
* It easily regulates the pH of the environment with its neutral (pH = 6,5-7,5) and low chemical tankiness.
* Since its thermal conductivity is low, it minimizes the damage of the plant from daily temperature changes.
* In soilless agriculture; Its structure does not deteriorate after sterilization, bringing the chance of use for 6 years in a row.
* Provides early product.
* Prevents damage and loss in seedling roots.
AS GRASSING AND SEEDLING GROWING ENVIRONMENT
Perlite is successfully used as a soil conditioner in greenhouses, as an additive in seedling mortars and as a growing medium in soilless agriculture. Perlite is a very suitable environment for the germination of vegetable and flower seeds. Humidified Perlite is filled into pots or boxes prepared for this purpose. Then it is thoroughly wetted. In this environment, seeds are sown a little deeper than usual. In seed planting areas, seedlings are kept until the cotyledon leaves are fully opened and appear parallel to the ground.In this period, the seed uses its own nutrients, so there is no need to add any nutrients from outside. While the seedlings are in this view, care is taken to surprise them. Because after this period, fringing starts on the root, which is a pile. Delay in transplanting causes root loss during insertion. Dismantled seedlings are usually baffled into plastic bags. Plastic bags can be filled with a mortar prepared from a mixture of Perlite-Peat at a ratio of 1: 1 or can only be filled with Perlite. P2O5, 400 gr. K2O, 300 gr. N, 100 g. Mg is added. Seedlings in bags with pure perlite must be watered with nutrient solution.
This application is generally recommended for growing seedlings for greenhouse production. The greatest advantage of perlite as a germination medium is due to the fact that the seedlings are removed without any damage during transplanting and there is no root loss. It can be used for years with its sterility and protection of its properties.
AS ROOTING MEDIA
- * Perlite is successfully used for rooting flower, vegetable and fruit cuttings either alone or mixed with other mortar materials.
* If the folding boxes are filled with perlite only, it is sufficient for this purpose to moisten the perlite first and to insert the shoots into moist perlite and to keep the perlite moist continuously.
* As a rooting medium, Perlite can be mixed with an organic substance at ratios from 1: 1 to 9: 1.
* If it is desired to have soil in the environment, a mixture of 5 scales of perlite, 1 measure of organic material and one measure of sterilized medium-bodied soil is recommended.
* It is of great importance that the folding environment is watered regularly and regularly, that the environment is warm and humid.
* Perlite, which will be used as rooting medium, is coarse grained, resulting in healthier roots
* In addition to obtaining a wonderful rooting environment with perlite, it is possible to achieve great profitability by avoiding the very expensive vegetable seeds for a while by producing seedlings obtained from tomato and cucumber shoots.
PERLITE IN SOIL CULTURE
- * Perlite is used as a soil conditioner or as a soil regulator according to the needs of the soil in soil culture, or as a reducing water loss. In a good soil conditioner, the conditions of high useful water capacity, high base change and heat capacity, low salt content and heat permeability are sought. These are all properties found in perlite.
* When perlite is mixed with heavy and sticky soils, it prevents the formation of a creamy layer, cracking, ponding, swelling and shrinkage due to its drainage and aeration properties.
* Perlite, which is used in GREENHOUSES as a soil conditioner, not only gives the soil a rough structure, but also increases the water holding power of the soil and the usefulness of nutrients.
* With perlite, it is possible to change the physical properties, which are more important for greenhouse soils than their chemical properties, in the desired direction. In greenhouses with bottom irrigation and drip irrigation, 4-5 cm. When coarse-grained Perlite is laid, the use of water can be reduced by half. In a study conducted at Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, the upper part of the greenhouse soil was mixed with coarse perlite in a ratio of 1: 4. Although the tomatoes grown here were irrigated 6 times, the cellar was irrigated 21 times in the normal greenhouse soil. It can be seen that Perlite causes a great saving in terms of water loss and labor.
PERLITE IN SOILLESS CULTURE
- * Soilless agriculture practices have been started in recent years in order to eliminate the problems encountered in greenhouse soils that are getting tired. Soilless farming practices are observed in many foreign countries at the rate of up to 95%. In these applications, perlite can be used alone or mixed with other mortars such as peat, sand, wood, and bark.
* In soilless culture, perlite or perlite mortar is spread on a black plastic cover laid on the greenhouse soil at a thickness of 10-15 cm and the seedlings are planted at certain intervals on this spreading layer. The water and nutrient requirements of the planted plants are met by irrigation with nutrient solutions.
* Other application plants; It is grown in 5-10 liter volume bags filled with perlite or another perlite mixture. It is also very easy to grow. Because production; It consists of arranging these bags on black plastic covers spread over the soil at regular intervals and meeting the water and nutrient requirements of the plants with nutrient solutions.
List the advantages of soilless culture as follows :
- * The dosage of nutrients and water can be adjusted better.
* Crop rotation, which is important in soil agriculture, becomes insignificant.
* Problems caused by soil borne diseases and pests and weeds can be greatly reduced.
* Since leakage and evaporation losses can be reduced, a great deal of economy is provided from water.
* Tillage, washing, which require large labor and expenditure in greenhouses,
* there is no need for disinfection and fertilization processes.
* Agricultural areas, as there is no need for soil. it can be more widespread.
USAGE OF PERLITE IN GRASS FIELDS AND SOIL FIELDS
- * -Perlite is a unique soil conditioner for gardens, parks, football and golf fields and turf lands on the course. The grass in the soil compacted by external effects or pressing weakens or even disappears.
* With perlite, the life of the grass can be extended, as well as preventing loam and ponding problems.
* -With Perlite, the leaf area of the lawn expands, the number of leaves and roots increases. Compaction in the tramped soils is reduced by half.
* Perlite application is the same in chewed and non-chewed grass: 2.5 cm thick Perlite is mixed into the soil of 2.5 cm thickness and a 5 cm thick mixture is obtained. Perlite must be wetted before application. Grass seed is sown after mixing. If possible, 100 gr / m2 powder limestone is laid on it with 4-5 kg / m2 burnt farm manure. If commercial fertilizer will be used instead of farm manure, 50 gr / m2 26% ammonium nitrate, 65 gr / m2 18% super phosphate. and 15 gr / m2 potassium sulphate mixture is applied at certain intervals. There is no change in the irrigation regime.
* Standard or super coarse perlite should be used on grass fields.
* -Perlite should be mixed into the soil homogeneously, the roller should be pulled before the first shape and the cut should be done with scissors.
- APPLICATION IN SOIL FIELDS is applied with the aim of providing flexibility to the soil and obtaining a soft ground. The purpose is achieved with Perlite applied under the upper ground in the soil field. Perlite constitutes 30% of the entire field in the field arrangement.