SOIL FREE AGRICULTURE
SOIL FREE AGRICULTURE
Soilless agriculture was first established in 1930, when British Professor Dr. It was founded by William Gericke and later developed in the Netherlands. This practice began in 1995, Turkey was able to come to an important position in the foreign market and investment area soon.
Soilless agriculture is not known much in our country because this production is mainly for export. The reason for this is that the cost of the products produced by soilless agriculture is high and this cost is reflected in parallel with the price. In other words, the price of a tomato costing 1 lira with soilless agriculture is 3.5 lira on the market counter. buyers of these products in Europe, which is far above the ordinary consumer purchasing power in Turkey too. These countries have already started to purchase land from Turkey to landless agriculture.
In soilless agriculture, which is the most preferred production method in the world, the product is not grown in the soil on the ground, but in special containers for the seedlings to be grown. Perlite material is added into the container. Since this material has the property of providing thermal insulation, it minimizes the effect of temperature changes on the plant.
After the seedling is planted, bumblebees enter the circuit during the ripening and fruiting phase. These bees, with their lick and sucking tongues, enable pollination by sucking the inside of the flowers during the flowering period, thus the product is formed.
For example, a tomato produced by this method is more red and healthier than agriculture with soil. If the seedling is grown in a healthy and correct manner, 70 days after the seedling is planted, the tomatoes you planted reach the maturity to be collected.
Soilless agriculture in all its aspects.
Soilless agriculture, which has been closely followed by the entrepreneurial capital in recent years, is a candidate to become one of the most popular investment areas in the near future. The system, in which volcanic rocks are used instead of soil and perlite and various minerals and water are injected, is currently being built by a small number of entrepreneurs.
Agricultural areas in the world are becoming increasingly inefficient. On the other hand, the increasing world population is a harbinger of great troubles in the future due to global warming and abnormal increase in food prices. These pessimistic expectations regarding the future of traditional agricultural production have pushed the scientific world into an intense search for years. For example, researches on soilless agriculture have been put into practice today, leaving the research dimension.
Not too much though Turkey is in the beginning of this application. Many investors in Turkey, remote but watching developments with great interest. Anywhere in Turkey, landless agriculture in the focus of attention of entrepreneurs from all sectors, with data provided by more than five times higher than the earth, a candidate to be one of the most profitable businesses in the future. This is one of the reasons for interest.
SOIL-FREE AGRICULTURE IN ALL ASPECTS
Apart from the possibility of growing hygienic and more delicious products, in soilless agriculture, which does not require factors such as fertilization, spraying and excessive irrigation, sensitive medicinal plants, especially traditional vegetables, and greens that do not contain tubers, can be grown healthier and the disease level is reduced to minimum levels.
So how is soilless farming done?
In which regions is it advantageous to invest?
What products are produced and what is the market for these products?
production stories from producer operating in this area in Turkey, this new wave of investment and feasibility analysis of Turkey's economy, we have demonstrated the widest shape.
A 40 BILLION DOLLAR MARKET
Agriculture is one of the sectors that the world has recently focused on. Because food prices have increased by more than 50 percent in recent years. With this increase, the world economy started to shake. Information from important representatives of developed countries indicates that hundreds of thousands of people will starve in the future. In other words, a more comfortable living environment awaits those who invest in agriculture today.
Turkey also closely watching the developments in the world. It develops new technologies and systems. Of course it is not only dealing with agriculture, technology companies are doing well, as entrepreneurs with vision ... Turkey, is among the fortunate countries in terms of agriculture. However, fragmented soils, erosion and drought hinder yield in agriculture.
According to the survey of Turkey's soil it is said to be reduced by 23 percent the last 10 years. Soilless agriculture, which has just started to develop in the field of agriculture, has already started to take its place as an investment area of today and the future. Soilless agriculture, also known as "hydroponic cultivation," has reached a size of $ 40 billion in the world. In Turkey, about 100 greenhouses began to be used in this technique.
EFFICIENCY MORE THAN 5 TIMES
Holland and Belgium are among the countries where soilless agriculture is used most intensively. Soilless agriculture is done in a total of 95 percent of the greenhouses of these two countries. In Turkey, especially in the state last year investors have flocked to this area. About 4 thousand acres of the total 48 thousand hectares of greenhouses in Turkey, according to a recent statement, has already started to landless agricultural applications.
Experts say Turkey's soilless made greenhouse area will increase to 15 thousand acres in two to three years. The yield in soilless farming method is five times higher than in normal agriculture. In soilless agriculture with dynamic aquaculture, 16 thousand tomatoes from a seed and 80 tons of products are obtained from a decare.
Hormones and drugs are not used in this agriculture. Therefore, soilless greenhouses, where residue-free and high-price products are grown, also motivate traditional greenhouses. Stating that there is no problem in the marketing of the product despite its high price, sector representatives state that the buyers are constantly in both domestic market and export. Production at European standards is easily exported to European markets, Russia and Arab countries. It is also stated that chain markets do not have any difficulties to buy these products. Because the consumers' understanding of healthy eating has been developing gradually recently.
INVESTMENT OF 60 EURO SQUARE METER
The investment cost of soilless agriculture is higher than other agricultural methods. However, considering the efficiency obtained, it is seen that this investment is a profitable investment. While the investment amount is 60 Euros per square meter in plastic greenhouses, it reaches 70-75 Euros in glass greenhouses. The investment required for one decare is around 70-75 thousand Euros. It is stated that the return on investment varies between two and five years.
The turnaround time varies according to the type of soilless agriculture. Soilless agriculture is done with materials such as perlite and pumice.
INTENSIVE DEMAND FROM ENTREPRENEURS
entrepreneurs seeking to invest in different fields especially in recent years in Turkey, is focused on landless agriculture. According to the information we received from company executives who market the necessary materials for soilless agriculture, bosses who have fled the construction sector, especially the textile sector, are looking for the answer to the question of how we can make a profit in this business. According to the information we received from a supplier company manager, the number of entrepreneurs who applied to supply them for goods has exceeded 100 in the last year.
DOMESTIC MARKET DEMAND IS INCREASING
As we mentioned, soilless agricultural products have no problem in exports. Products are sold in chain stores as packages instead of kilograms. According to the information given by a manufacturer, while it used to give only 2 percent of its production to the domestic market, this rate increased to 10 percent within a year.
KUMLUCA, SOILLESS AGRICULTURE BASE
Kumluca district of Antalya where greenhouses which first began in Turkey, has begun to improve the efficiency in greenhouses with hydroponic agriculture. In fact, producers say Kumluca is on its way to becoming a base for soilless agriculture.
There are still four large soilless farming greenhouses in Kumluca, which meets 40 percent of the winter vegetable need. The size of these greenhouses has reached 100 decares and it is stated that there are five big investors in this area. Kumluca has 55 thousand decares of land. It is stated that the number of entrepreneurs who want to take part in this land is increasing day by day.
The demand also increased the land prices in Kumluca. One acre of land in Kumluca is sold for 40 thousand TL. Now, it is planned to build a processing and packaging specialized organized industrial zone in Kumluca.
HOW SOIL FREE FARMING IS MADE?
The International Soilless Agriculture Association (ISOSC) defines soilless agriculture as: "Growing the roots of non-aquatic plants in completely inorganic environments supplemented with a nutrient solution." In soilless agriculture, seedlings are planted using perlite, pumice, or similar neutral media instead of soil. The only function of these substances, which can be called completely neutral with no content, is to keep the plant root water. Therefore, agriculture can be done comfortably even in very unproductive areas.
In soilless agriculture, natural nutrients (potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, etc.) and minerals that the plant needs to take from the soil are given directly to the root of the plant by spaghetti drip irrigation, completely computer-controlled. Thus, optimum growth of the plant is ensured.
A deficient, excessive or harmful formation is thus not kept alive for the plant, thus preventing the use of hormones that are harmful to health. The nutrition of the plants is transmitted from outside to the roots of the plants by means of a material called drip.
The machine located outside adjusts the fertilizer, acid and water ratio to be sent to the plant by evaluating the values such as the day temperature, the lighting time of the plants and the length of the day. In soilless agriculture, there is no need for fertile land. There is no need for hormones, chemicals and fertilizers. Since the soil is not used, the risks caused by soil bacteria or diseases are not in question in this system. Also, fallow application is not needed. Product quality increases thanks to the possibility of fully automated and controlled production.
GREENHOUSE AREA IN TURKEY ON THE RISE
* Turkey's greenhouse area of about 300 thousand acres,
* Average greenhouse area per farm is around 3 decares,
* The number of families engaged in greenhouse cultivation is between 100 thousand and 120 thousand,
* Yield per acre is 35 tons for tomatoes and 15 tons for colored peppers over a period of 8-9 months.